WATER PURIFICATION IN SPACE CONDITIONS
The life support system of the International Space Station must include the provision of drinking water to the crew and the treatment and disposal of wastewater. The cost of water delivery to the ISS is very high, so it is necessary to improve the technological schemes of wastewater treatment in space in order to reuse water in a complete closed cycle. The studies were performed based on the analysis of Ukrainian and foreign scientific sources and reporting data on the specifics of water use at space stations and the treatment methods of the used waters (wastewaters). In addition to international experience, our own research was used to develop a technology for wastewater treatment in space. The authors of the article analyzed the operation of existing wastewater treatment facilities in space and made recommendations for their use at the ISS. The developed technology for the treatment of wastewater and drinking water in zero-gravity (space) is based on the use of various reactors. They can be made of various materials (metal, plastic, etc.); they do not contain non-standard equipment that requires factory manufacturing. Compactness, complete tightness and small dimensions of bio- and physicochemical reactors allow them to be installed within the ISS. The cleaning process is easy to manage and can be fully automated. Water problems are central to the whole world, including in space. The ISS should have a system for the wastewater treatment and their closed use, since the supply of new water to stations significantly increases the cost of space exploration. Quality water is the health and well-being of people in space. Since there is no gravity in space, centrifugal forces (centrifuges) must be used to separate suspended particles from water. A comprehensive review of the issues related to wastewater treatment in space, allows us to conclude that it is necessary to regenerate water at International space stations (ISS). Indeed, to ensure the life support of the astronauts, a colossal amount of water is required, and its delivery to the ISS from the Earth is expensive.
Zhurnal «Vse pro kosmos». Mіzhnarodna kosmіchna stantsіya (MKS) [Electronic resource]. Rezhim dostupu: https://aboutspacejornal.net
Wang Y., Pham H. Water Treatment Plant Ancillary Facilities: Unsung Heroes of Hurricane Harvey. Journal American Water Works Association. 2019. Vol. 111. Iss. 8. P. 81–100. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/awwa.1339
Sinyak Yu. E. Aktovaya rech'. Sistemy zhizneobespecheniya obitaemykh kosmicheskikh ob"ektov. Moskva : IBMP RAN, 2008. S. 3–28.
Sauser Brittany. Purified Urine in Space. MIT Technology Review. December 19, 2008.
Hansman Heather. A new efficient filter helps astronauts drink their own urine. Smithsonian magazine. September 11, 2015.
Dolina L. F., Zhdan Yu. O., Dolina D. A. Ochistka stochnykh vod v usloviyakh kosmosa // Nauka ta progres transportu. Vіsnik Dnіpropetrovs'kogo natsіonal'nogo unіversitetu zalіznichnogo transportu, 2020. № 2 (86). S. 7–15. DOI: https://doi.org/10.15802/stp2020/202612
Gupta G.S. Orbán S.A. Water is life, life is water : (Un) sustainable use and management of water in the 21st century. Corvinus Journal of Sociology and Social Policy. 2018. Vol. 9, No. 1 P. 81–100. DOI: https://doi.org/10.14267/CJSSP.2018.1.04
Aristov N. I. Kosmicheskoe pitanie. Tekhnologii. Istoriya i sovremennost'. Aktual'nye problemy aviatsii i kosmonavtiki. 2017. T. 3. S.980–982.
Sal'nikov N. A. Issledovanie ochistki sanitarno-gigienicheskoi vody v zamknutoi sisteme vodo-obespecheniya letatel'nykh apparatov. Nauchnyi vestnik MGTU GA. 2016. T. 19, № 3. S. 157–165.
Dolina L. F. Reaktory dlya ochistki stochnykh vod . Uchebnoe posobie. DG TUZhT: Standart, 2001. 82 s.
Vodnye khroniki : Nauchnye novosti // Voda i vodnye tekhnologii. 2019. № 2 (92). 22 s.
LED light technology to purify water on airliners. Flight Global, 2019 [Electronic resource]. Mode of access: https://www.flightglobal.com/systems-and-interiors/aix-led-light-technology-to-purify-water-on- airliners/132154.article
Anderson N. G. Zonal Centrifuges and Other Separation Systems. Science. 1966. Vol. 154, Iss. 3745. P. 103–112. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1126/science.154.3745.103
Giorno L., Drioli E. Biocatalityc membrane reactors: applications and perspectives. Trends of biotechnology. 2000. Vol.18. Iss. 8. P. 339–349. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-7799(00)01472-4
Dolina L. F., Nahorna O. K., Zhdan Yu. O., Dolina D. A. Tekhnolohiia ochyshchennia stichnykh vod v umovakh kosmosu // Ukrainskyi zhurnal budivnytstva ta arkhitektury, 2021. № 3 (003). S. 76–84. DOI: https://doi.org/10.30838/J.BPSACEA.2312.010721.76.769
Dolina L. F. Sovremennaya tekhnika i tekhnologiya dlya ochistki stochnykh vod ot solei tyazhelykh metallov: monografiya. Dnepropetrovsk : Kontinent, 2008. 254 s.
Dolina L. F. Novye metody i oborudovaniya dlya obezzarazhivaniya stochnykh i prirodnykh vod : monografiya. Dnepropetrovsk : Kontinent, 2003. 218 s.