REVIEW OF INTELLIGENT MATERIALS AND THE POSSIBILITY OF THEIR USE IN ROCKET AND SPACE TECHNOLOGY
A new generation of materials – «intellectual» materials – is rapidly developing. Intelligent materials are materials that react in a certain way to changes in the state of the environment or the influence of force fields, vibrations or oscillations and radiation. This reaction results in the alterations of material properties, geometry and its adaptation to changes in operating conditions. Constructions are made of intelligent materials, in addition to the traditional functions of taking operational loads and ensuring load and strength, can provide self-monitoring, identification and localization of the fatigue damage. The material in such constructions can contain a set of electronics, built into the structure, which performs the function of receiving, processing and transmitting information in different frequency ranges. Intellectual material requirements are defined by the purpose and conditions of use of the structures and their components. The objective of this work is to give an overview of intellectual materials, in order to introduce the main information about their properties and their applicability in space and rocket technology. Furthermore, in this article data processing and analysis were carried out, which allowed to formalize the properties of the considered intellectual materials. Moreover, the application of intellectual materials can improve existing design schemes and elements or create entirely new design solutions in the future. For instance, the use of magnetostrictive materials allows to reduce the longitudinal oscillations of the launch vehicle on an active part of the trajectory along with absorbing vibrations and regulating the stringency of the stage separation. Structural analysis of the special properties of intellectual materials and their application not only will solve existing problems, but also enable further development of the space rocket industry.
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